Q.1:- Write a note on:-
(a) Guiseppe Mazzini
(b) Count Camillo de Cavour
(c) The Greek War of Independence
(d) Frankfurt Parliament
(e) The Role of Women in Nationalist Struggles
(a) Guiseppe Mazzini was an Italian revolutionary. He was born in Genoa in 1807. He was sent into exile at the age of 24 in 1831 for attempting a revolution in Liguria. He founded two secret societies, namely Young Italy and Young Europe. He inspired the young members of these societies to involve in revolutionary activities. Following his ideas and on the model of his secret societies, more such societies were set up in Germany, France, Switzerland and Poland. Austrian Chancellor DukeMattermich once describe him as ‘the most dangerous energy of our social order’.
(b) Count Camillo de Cavour was the Chief Minister of Piedmont. He was neither a democrat nor a revolutionary. But he led the movement to unify the regions of Italy. Through tact and diplomacy he entered into an alliance with France and succeded in defeating Austrian forces in 1859.
(c) This was a successful war waged by Greek revolutionaries between 1821 and 1829 against the Ottoman Empire. Greek nationalists were influenced by the idea of Liberal nationalism. They were supported by the West European countries in this war of independence. Further, the poets and artists, who added romanticism to the Greek struggle of independence, participated in this war against the Ottoman Empire. With the Treaty of Constantinople in 1832 Greece was recognized as an independent nation.
(d) The German middle class decided to vote for an all – German National Assembly in 1848, and 831 persons were elected. They comprised the National Assembly. The assembly decided to organize the Parliament at Frankfurt in the church of St. Paul. Thus, on 18th May, 1848, the famous Frankfurt Parliament was convened. The assembly decided that the German nation would be a constitutional monarchy controlled by Parliament, and offered the crown to the Prussian King, Friedrich Wilhelm IV. But he rejected it and joined other monarchs to oppose the elected assembly. The Parliament also faced strong opposition from the aristocracy and military as it was dominated by the middle class who resisted the demands of workers and artisans. As a result of this the middle class lost their mass support.
Ultimately, the monarchy and military combined together with the aristocracy and won over the liberal nationalist middle class. This forced the assembly to disband.
Therefore, the Frankfurt Parliament is famous in history as a failure of liberalism and a victory of the monarchy.
(e) Women played very significant roles in nationalist struggles all over the world. They actively participated in movements, faced the tortures of police, stood by their male counterparts, spread the idea of liberal nationalism and also were members of various revolutionary organizations. A good example is the French Revolution, in which men and women participated equally. Even the concept of Liberty is personified as a woman.
Liberal nationalism proposed the idea of universal suffrage, leading to women’s active participation in nationalist movements in Europe. In spite of this, they were given little or no political rights or right to vote till the end of the 19th century.