Q.1:- Why did some industrialists in 19th century Europe prefer hand labour over machines?
In 19th century, Europe some British industrialists preferred hand labour over machines because
(i) New technologies and machines were expensive, so the producers and the industrialists were cautious about using them.
(ii) Machines often broke down and their repair was expensive.
(iii) Poor peasants and migrants moved to cities in large numbers in search of jobs. So the supply of workers was more than the demand. Therefore, workers were available at low wages.
(iv) In seasonal industries, where production fluctuated with the seasons, industrialists usually preferred hand labour, employing workers only for the season, when it was needed.
(v) The variety of products required in the market could not be produced by the machines available at that time. In mid-nineteenth century, Britain, for instance, 500 varieties of hammers were produced and 45 kinds of axes, these required human skill, and not mechanical technology.