Q.1:- What was the focus of the economic policies pursued by the colonial government in India? What were the impacts of these policies?
The economic policies pursued by the colonial government in India were concerned more with the protection and promotion of the economic interests of their home country rather than with the development of the Indian economy.
Thus, at the time of independence in 1947, India was a poor and underdeveloped country. At that time, agriculture was in a poor condition and mineral resources were not fully used. There were only a few industries and many of the cottage and small-scale industries had declined under the British rule. Millions of people were unemployed, not because they were unwilling to work but because there were no jobs to be found. The per capita income of Indians was one of the lowest in the world, indicating that the average Indian was extremly poor and could not afford even the basic necessities of life. For instance, the staple food of average Indian consisted of rice, wheat and millets (like jowar and bajra). Most Indians could not afford to buy nutritious and balanced diet. The vast majority of people in India led a miserable life.