Q.18:- What are the various factors due to which the ionization enthalpy of the main group elements tends to decrease down a group?
Atomic size. With the increase in atomic size, the number of electron shells increase. Therefore, the force that binds the electrons with the nucleus decreases. The ionization enthalpy thus decreases with the increase in atomic size.
Screening or shielding effect of inner shell electron. With the addition of new shells, the number of inner electron shells which shield the valence electrons increases. As a result, the force of attraction of the nucleus for the valence electrons further decreases and hence the ionization enthalpy decreases. ‘