What is the significance of the terms – ‘isolated gaseous atom’ and ‘ground state’ while defining the ionization enthalpy and electron gain enthalpy?



Q.14:- What is the significance of the terms – ‘isolated gaseous atom’ and ‘ground state’ while defining the ionization enthalpy and electron gain enthalpy?

 

 

Answer:-



 

  • Significance of term ‘isolated gaseous atom’. The atoms in the gaseous state are far separated in the sense that they do not have any mutual attractive and repulsive interactions. These are therefore regarded as isolated atoms. In this state the value of ionization enthalpy and electron gain enthalpy are not influenced by the presence of the other atoms. It is not possible to express these when the atoms are in the ; liquid or solid state due to the presence of inter atomic forces.
  • Significance of ground state. Ground state of the atom represents the normal – energy state of an atom. It means electrons in a particular atom are in the lowest energy state and they neither lose nor gain electron. Both ionisation enthalpy and I electron gain enthalpy are generally expressed with respect to the ground state ofan atom only.