What are the major differences between metals and non-metals?

Q.26:- What are the major differences between metals and non-metals?



Metals can lose electrons easily. Non-metals cannot lose electrons easily
Metals are solids at room ( Exceptions – Hg, Ga ). temperature Non – metals may be solids, liquids or gases at room temperature
Metals generally form ionic compounds. Non–metals generally form covalent compounds.
Metals have low ionization enthalpies. Non–metals have high ionization enthalpies.
Metals are less electronegative. They are rather electropositive elements. Non–metals are electronegative.
Metals have a high reducing power. Non–metals have a low reducing power
Metals have luster. They reflect light  from polished or freshly cut surface Non-metals do not have luster.( Exceptions – Diamond and Iodine )
Metals generally have high density Non-metals generally have low density
They are good conductors of heat and  and electricity.


They are usually bad conductors of heat electricity. (exception – carbon in the form of gas carbon and graphite )
Metals are malleable and ductile. They can be beaten into sheets and drawn into wires. Non-metals are not malleable and ductile They are brittle when solid.They can be crushed into powder
They have a three dimensional crystal structure with metallic bonds They have different types of structures with covalent and van-der-Walls’ bonds
Metals usually have high tensile  Strength Non- metals usually have low tensile strength
Metals generally have 1 to 3 electrons in outermost shell of their atoms Non-metals generally have 4 to 8 in their outermost shell of the atom
They generally form basic oxides. They generally form acidic oxides
They act as reducing agents They act as oxidizing agents.