Q.4:- How was the history of nationalism in Britain unlike the rest of Europe?
No British Nation was in existence before the 18th century. Different ethnic groups of people were there in the British Isles such as English, Welsh, Scot and Irish. Each of these ethnic groups had their own cultural and political traditions. On the other hand, the rest of Europe had no such arrangements. Nationalism in Britain was not the result of a sudden upheaval or revolution. It was due to a long drawn process. The English nation possessed the other three nations of the islands through a steady growth in property wealth and power. Besides this, the English language, British Flag and National Anthem were promoted as national symbols to identify the nationality of the nation.
The British Parliament became the chief instrument to curb the power of the monarchy in 1688 through a bloodless revolution. The Act of Union (1707) between England and Scotland formed the United Kingdom of Great Britain. With the advent of English power the English removed the cultural, political institutions of Scotland forcefully and the cots were banned from speaking the Gaelic language and put on the national dress.
There were two classes of the people in Ireland; Catholics and Protestants. The English liked the Protestants in comparison to Catholics. The English with the help of the Protestants suppressed the Catholics and forcibly united Ireland with the United Kingdom in 1801.
The symbols of the new Britain-the National Flag (Union Jack), the National Anthem (God save our Noble king) and the English language were actively promoted. Scotland and Ireland became the subordinate partners of the United Kingdom.