How are integrated steel plants different from mini steel plants? What problems does the industry face? What recent developments have led to a rise in the production capacity?

Q.3 (i):- How are integrated steel plants different from mini steel plants? What problems does the industry face? What recent developments have led to a rise in the production capacity?

 

Answer:-

Integrated Steel Plants are large plants which handle everything in one complex – from putting together raw material to steel making, rolling and shaping.
Mini Steel Plants are smaller, have electric arc furnaces, use mainly steel scrap and sponge iron as inputs. They have re-rollers that use steel ingots as well.
They produce mild and alloy steel of given specifications.
Problems of Steel Industry
a. High costs and limited availability of coking coal.
b. Lower productivity of labour.
c. Irregular supply of power.
d. Poor infrastructure.
Following are some recent developments that have led to a rise in the production capacity –
a. Liberalisation b. Foreign direct investments (FDI) with the efforts of private entrepreneurs. c. Improvement in production process by the use of newer technologies.