Give comparison between the following: (a) C3 and C4 pathways (b) Cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation (c) Anatomy of leaf in C3 and C4 plants | NCERT solution | Class 11 Biology | Unit-13 Photosynthesis in Higher Plants



Q.9:- Give comparison between the following:
(a) C3 and C4 pathways
(b) Cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation
(c) Anatomy of leaf in C3 and C4 plants

 

Answer:- 

(a) C3 and C4 pathways

Cpathways
Cpathways
The primary acceptor of CO is RUBP – a five-carbon compound. The primary acceptor of CO2 is phosphoenol pyruvate – a three-carbon compound.
The first stable product is 3 phosphoglycerate. The first stable product is oxaloacetic acid.
It occurs only in the mesophyll cells of the leaves. It occurs in the mesophyll and bundle-sheath cells of the leaves.
It is a slower process of carbon fixation and photo-respiratory losses are high. It is a faster process of carbon fixation and photo-respiratory losses are low.

 

 

(b) Cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation



Cyclic photophosphorylation
Non-cyclic photophosphorylation
It occurs only in photosystem I. It occurs both in photosystems I and II.
It involves only the synthesis of ATP. It involves the synthesis of ATP and NADPH2.
In this process, photolysis of water does not occur. Therefore, oxygen is not produced. In this process, photolysis of water takes place and oxygen is liberated.
In this process, electrons move in a closed circle. In this process, electrons do not move in a closed circle.

 

 

(c) Anatomy of leaf in C3 and C4 plants

Anatomy of leaf in C3
Anatomy of leaf in C4
Bundle-sheath cells are absent Bundle-sheath cells are present
RuBisCo is present in the mesophyll cells RuBisCo is present in the bundle-sheath cells.
The first stable compound produced is 3-phosphoglycerate – a three-carbon compound. The first stable compound produced is oxaloacetic acid – a four-carbon compound.
Photorespiration occurs Photorespiration does not occur