Q.1:- Explain trade credit and bank credit as sources of short term finance for business enterprises.
Trade Credit Trade credit is the credit extended by one trader to another for the purchase of goods and services. It facilitates the purchase of supplies without immediate payment and is commonly used by business organizations as a source of short-term financing. Trade credit appears in the records of the buyer of goods as ‘sundry creditors’ or ‘accounts payable’. It is granted prudently to those customers who have reasonable amount of financial standing and goodwill. The volume and period of credit extended depends on factors such as reputation of the purchasing firm, financial position of the seller, volume of purchases, past record of payment and degree of competition in the market. Terms of trade credit may vary from industry to industry and from person to person. As we know, trade is the purchase and sale of goods on profit motive. So, trade credit strictly refers to the routine business activity. Bank Credit Commercial banks provide funds for different purposes and for different time periods to firms of all sizes by way of cash credits, overdrafts, term loans, purchase/discounting of bills, and issue of letter of credit. The rate of interest charged by banks depends on various factors such as the characteristics of the firm and the level of interest rates in the economy. The loan is repaid either in lump sum or in installments. Bank credit is not a permanent source of funds and is generally used for medium to short periods. The borrower is required to provide some security or create a charge on the assets of the firm before a loan is sanctioned by a commercial bank.