Q.19:- Explain why (or how):
(a) In a sound wave, a displacement node is a pressure antinode and vice versa,
(b) Bats can ascertain distances, directions, nature, and sizes of the obstacles without any “eyes”,
(c) A violin note and sitar note may have the same frequency, yet we can distinguish between the two notes,
(d) Solids can support both longitudinal and transverse waves, but only longitudinal waves can propagate in gases, and
(e) The shape of a pulse gets distorted during propagation in a dispersive medium.
(a) A node (N) is a point where the amplitude of vibration is the minimum and pressure is the maximum.
An antinode (A) is a point where the amplitude of vibration is the maximum and pressure is the minimum.
Therefore, a displacement node is nothing but a pressure antinode, and vice versa.
(b) Bats emit ultrasonic waves of large frequencies. When these waves are reflected from the obstacles in their path, they give them the idea about the distance, direction, size and nature of the obstacle.
(c) The overtones produced by a sitar and a violin, and the strengths of these overtones, are different. Hence, one can distinguish between the notes produced by a sitar and a violin even if they have the same frequency of vibration.
(d) This is because solids have both, the elasticity of volume and elasticity of shape, whereas gases have only the volume elasticity.
(e) A sound pulse is a combination of waves of different wavelength. As waves of different λ travel in a dispersive medium with different velocities, therefore, the shape of the pulse gets distorted.