Q.2:- Explain how the global transfer of disease in the pre-modern world helped in the colonisation of the Americas.
The Portuguese and the Spanish had a strong firepower and army. But along with these, they also used germs and viruses for conquering parts of America. As America was isolated, earlier the original inhabitants had no immunity against these dreadful germs and viruses. The diseases once introduced, spread very fast. They killed and decimated whole communities, paving the way for their conquest. These germs were more dangerous as compared to guns and firearms because guns could be bought or captured, but there was no answer for these germs.
Thus, the Portuguese and Spanish colonizers could conquer the local population easily to enable colonization of the Americas.