Q.1:- Explain —
(a) Why the growth of nationalism in colonies is linked to an anti-colonial movement?
(b) How the First World War helped in the growth of the National Movement in India?
(c) Why Indians were outranged by the Rowlatt Act?
(d) Why did Gandhiji decide to withdraw Non-Cooperation Movement?
(a) National arrogance of the colonial power, their attempt to build the Indian Culture, their economic policy of draining away Indian wealth, wide spread hunger and starvation of masses, burden of heavy taxes over Indian, etc are the number of factors, responsible for the rise of anti-colonial movement. Gandhiji succeeded in forming all these element together under one banner, which led to anti-colonial mass movement.
(b) The war created a new economic and political situation which led to increase in defence expenditure. This expenditure increase was financed by war loans and by increasing taxes.
• Price hike during the war years (1914-1918) led to extreme hardship for the commoners.
• Villagers were called upon to supply soldiers and the forced recruitment caused widespread anger.
• Incidents such as Rowlatt Act, Jalianwala Bagh Messacre, Martial Law in Punjab, disintegration of the Ottoman Empire, further aggravated the situation, resulting in the emergence of the National Movement.
(c) Rowlatt Act was introduced in 1919. Under this Act, the police could arrest anybody without trail. Congress under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, condemned it as a black legislation and strongly opposed this act. The provisions of this act outraged Indians. Meetings were held everywhere and processions taken out. It was the first time when the Indians unitedly opposed the Britishers.
(d) Gandhiji decided to withdraw Non-Cooperation Movement because the movement took a violent turn at Chauri-Chaura, where the people set on fire a Police station in which 22 policemen were burnt alive.