Q.1 :- Discuss three factors that determine the outcomes of politics of social divisions.
There are three factors that determine the outcome of politics of social divisions
(a) People’s Perception This is the most important factor which decides the outcome of politics of social divisions. If people see their identities in singular and exclusive terms, it will lead to social division and even violence. As long as people in Northern Ireland saw themselves as only Catholic or, Protestant, their differences were difficult to reconcile. It is much easier if the people see that their identities are multiple and are complementary with the national identity. A majority of Belgians now feel that they are as much Belgian national or citizens as they are Dutch or French/German speaking. This feeling binds them together. Though, India is a multi-cultural country, the feeling of nationalism binds us together.
(b) Role of Community and Culture The outcome depends on how political leaders raise the demands of any community. It is easier to accommodate demands that are within the constitutional framework and are not at the cost of another community. For instance, the demand for ‘only Sinhala’ was at the cost of the interest and identity of the Tamil community in Sri Lanka.
(c) The Role of Political Party and Government In another way the political outcome of social divisions depends on how the government reacts to demands of different groups. This is observed in Belgium and Sri Lanka. If the rulers are willing to share power and accommodate the reasonable demands of the minority community, social divisions become less threatening for the country. But if they try to suppress such a demand in the name of national unity, the end result is often quite the opposite. Such attempts at forced integration often sow the seeds of disintegration,
Thus, the assertion of social diversities in a country need not be seen as a source of danger. In a democracy, the political expression of social divisions is normal and can be healthy.