Q.3 (iii):- Discuss the steps to be taken to minimize environmental degradation by industry.
The steps to be taken to minimize environmental degradation by industry are:
Minimizing water pollution:
1. Minimizing use water for processing by reusing and recycling it in two or more successive stages.
2. Harvesting of rainwater to meet water requirements.
3. Treating hot water and effluents before releasing them in rivers and ponds.
4. Treatment of industrial effluents done in three phases:
a. Primary treatment by mechanical means. This involves screening, grinding, flocculation and sedimentation.
b. Secondary treatment by biological process.
c. Tertiary treatment by biological, chemical and physical processes. This involves recycling of wastewater.
5. Overdrawing of ground water reserves by industry where there is a threat of ground water resources also needs to be regulated legally.
Minimizing air pollution:
1. Particulate matter in the air can be reduced by fitting smoke stacks to factories with electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters, scrubbers and inertial separators.
2. Smoke can be reduced by using oil or gas instead of coal in factories.
Minimizing noise pollution:
1. Machinery and equipment can be used and generators should be fitted with silencers.
2. Almost all machineries can be redesigned to increase energy efficiency and reduce noise.
3. Noise absorbing materials may be used apart from personal use of earplugs and earphones.