Differentiate between the following:- (i) red algae and brown algae (ii) liverworts and moss (iii) homosporous and heterosporous pteridophyte (iv) syngamy and triple fusion | NCERT solution | Class 12 Biology | Unit-3 Plant Kingdom

Q.9:-  Differentiate between the following:-
(i) red algae and brown algae
(ii) liverworts and moss
(iii) homosporous and heterosporous pteridophyte
(iv) syngamy and triple fusion

 

Answer

(i)

Red algae
Brown algae
Red algae are grouped under the class Rhodophyceae. Brown algae are grouped under the class Phaeophyceae.
They contain floridean starch as stored food. They contain mannitol or laminarin as stored food.
They contain the photosynthetic pigments chlorophylls a and d, and phycoerythrin. They contain the photosynthetic pigments chlorophylls a and c, and fucoxanthin.
Their cell walls are composed of cellulose, pectin, and phycocolloids. Their cell walls are composed of cellulose and algin.
Flagella are absent Flagella are present

(ii)

Liverworts
Moss
They have unicellular rhizoids. They have multicellular rhizoids.
Scales are present very often Scales are absent
They are generally thalloid, with dichotomous branching. They are foliage, with lateral branching.
Gemma cups are present Gemma cups are absent
Sporophyte has very little photosynthetic tissue Sporophyte has abundant photosynthetic tissue

(iii)

Homosporous pteridophytes Heterosporous pteridophytes
They bear spores that are of the same type. They bear two kinds of spores – microspores and megaspores.
They produce bisexual gametophytes. They produce unisexual gametophytes.

(iv)

Syngamy Triple fusion
It is the process of fusion of the male gamete with the egg in an angiosperm. It is the process of fusion of the male gamete with the diploid secondary nucleus in an angiosperm.
A diploid zygote is formed as a result of syngamy. A triploid primary endosperm is formed as a result of triple fusion.