Q.7:- Describe the following: (a) synapsis (b) bivalent (c) chiasmata Draw a diagram to illustrate your answer.
(a) Synapsis: During zygotene of prophase I stage homologou s chromosomes start pairing together and this process of association is called synapsis. Electron micrographs of this stage indicate that chromosome synapsis is accompanied by the formation of complex structure called synaptonemal complex.
(b) Bivalent: The complex formed by a pair of synapsed homologous chromosomes is called a bivalent or a tetrad i.e., 4 chromatids or a pair of chromosomes.
(c) Chiasmata: The beginning of diplotene is recognized by the dissolution of the synaptonemal complex and the tendency of the synapsed homologous chromosomes of the bivalents to separate from each other except at the sites of crossovers. These points of attachment (X-shaped structures) between the homologous chromosomes are called chiasmata.