Q.12:- Define a cardiac cycle and the cardiac output.
The sequential events in the heart which are repeated cyclically is called cardiac cycle and it consists of systole (contraction) and diastole (relaxation) of both the atria and ventricles. The duration of a cardiac cycle is 0.8 seconds. Periods of cardiac cycle are atrial systole (0.1 second), ventricular systole (0.3 second) and complete cardiac diastole (0.4 second).
The amount of blood pumped by heart per minute is called cardiac output. It is calculated by multiplying stroke volume (volume of blood pumped by each ventricle per minute) with heart rate (number of beats per minute). The heart of normal person beats 72 times per minute and pumps out about 70 mL of blood per beat. Therefore, cardiac output averages 5000 mL or 5 litres.