Q.2:- By looking at which internal structure of a plant can you tell whether a plant is C3 or C4? Explain.
C4 plants live in hot moist or arid and nonsaline or saline habitats. Internally the leaves show kranz anatomy. In kranz anatomy, the mesophyll is undifferentiated and its cells occur in concentric layers around vascular bundles. Vascular bundles are surrounded by large sized bundle sheath cells which are arranged in a wreath-like manner (kranz – wreath). The mesophyll and bundle sheath cells are connected by plasmodesmata or cytoplasmic bridges. The chloroplasts of the mesophyll cells are smaller. They have well developed grana and a peripheral reticulum but no starch. Mesophyll cells are specialised to perform light reaction, evolve 02 and produce assimilatory power (ATP and NADPH). They also possess enzyme PEPcase for initial fixation of CO2 The chloroplasts of the bundle sheath cells are agranal.