Q.13:- Bring out the importance of animal husbandry, fisheries and horticulture as a source of diversification.
- Animal Husbandry
(a) In India, the farming community uses the mixed crop-livestock farming system—cattle, goats, fowl are the widely held species.
(b) This system provides increased stability in income, food security, transport, fuel and nutrition for the family without disrupting other food-producing activities.
(c) Today, livestock sector alone provides alternate livelihood options to over 70 million small and marginal farmers including landless labourers.
(d) Poultry accounts for the largest share. It is 42 per cent of total livestock in India.
(e) Milk production in the country has increased by more than four times between 1960-2002.
(f) Meat, eggs, wool and other by-products are also emerging as important productive sectors for diversification.
(a) The fishing community regards the water body as ‘mother’ or ‘provider’. The water bodies consist of sea, oceans, rivers, lakes, natural aquatic ponds, streams, etc.
(b) Presently, fish production from inland sources contributes about 49 per cent to the total fish production and the balance 51 per cent comes from the marine sector (sea and oceans). Today total fish production accounts for 1.4 per cent of the total GDP.
(c) Among states, Kerala, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu are the major producers of marine products.
(a) Due to varying climate and soil conditions, India has adopted growing of diverse horticultural crops such as fruits, vegetables, tuber crops, flowers, medicinal and aromatic plants, spices and plantation crpps..
(b) These crops play an important role in providing food, nutrition and employment.
(c) India has emerged as a world leader in producing a variety of fruits like mangoes, bananas, coconuts, cashew, nuts and a number of spices and is the second largest producer of fruits and vegetables.
(d) Flower harvesting, nursery maintenance, hybrid seed production and tissue culture, propagation of fruits and flowers and food processing are highly profitable employment opportunities for rural women. It has been estimated that this sector provides employment to around 19 per cent of the total labour force.