A brass wire 1.8 m long at 27 °C is held taut with little tension between two rigid supports. If the wire is cooled to a temperature of –39 °C, what is the tension developed in the wire, if its diameter is 2.0 mm? Co-efficient of linear expansion of brass = 2.0 × 10–5 K–1; Young’s modulus of brass = 0.91 × 1011 Pa. | Learn NCERT solution | Education portal Class 11 Physics | Study online Unit-11 Thermal Properties of Matter

Q.9:- A brass wire 1.8 m long at 27 °C is held taut with little tension between two rigid supports. If the wire is cooled to a temperature of –39 °C, what is the tension developed in the wire, if its diameter is 2.0 mm? Co-efficient of linear expansion of brass = 2.0 × 10–5 K–1; Young’s modulus of brass = 0.91 × 1011 Pa.

Initial temperature, T1 = 27°C
Length of the brass wire at T1, l = 1.8 m
Final temperature, T2 = –39°C
Diameter of the wire, d = 2.0 mm = 2 × 10–3 m
Tension developed in the wire = F
Coefficient of linear expansion of brass, α = 2.0 × 10–5 K–1
Young’s modulus of brass, Y = 0.91 × 1011 Pa
Young’s modulus is given by the relation:
γ = Stress / Strain  =  (F/A) / (∆L/L)
L = F X L / (A X Y)      ……(i)

Where,
F = Tension developed in the wire
A = Area of cross-section of the wire.
ΔL = Change in the length, given by the relation:
ΔL = αL(T2T1) … (ii)
Equating equations (i) and (ii), we get:
αL(T2T1) = FL / [ π(d/2)2 X Y ]
F = α(T2 – T1)πY(d/2)2
F = 2 × 10-5 × (-39-27) × 3.14 × 0.91 × 1011 × (2 × 10-3 / 2 )2
= -3.8 × 102 N