A rocket is fired vertically with a speed of 5 km s–1 from the earth’s surface. How far from the earth does the rocket go before returning to the earth? Mass of the earth = 6.0 × 1024 kg; mean radius of the earth = 6.4 × 106 m; G= 6.67 × 10–11 N m2 kg–2. | Learn NCERT solution | Education portal Class 11 Physics | Study online Unit-8 Gravitation



Q.17:- A rocket is fired vertically with a speed of 5 km s–1 from the earth’s surface. How far from the earth does the rocket go before returning to the earth? Mass of the earth = 6.0 × 1024 kg; mean radius of the earth = 6.4 × 106 m; G= 6.67 × 10–11 N m2 kg2.

 

 

Answer:-



Velocity of the rocket, v = 5 km/s = 5 × 103 m/s
Mass of the Earth, Me = 6 × 1024 kg
Radius of the Earth, Re = 6.4 × 106 m
Height reached by rocket mass, m = h
At the surface of the Earth,
Total energy of the rocket = Kinetic energy + Potential energy
= (1/2)mv2 + (-GMem / Re)
At highest point h,
v = 0
And, Potential energy = -GMem / (Re + h)
Total energy of the rocket = 0 + [ -GMem / (Re + h) ]
= -GMem / (Re + h)
From the law of conservation of energy, we have
Total energy of the rocket at the Earth’s surface = Total energy at height h
(1/2)mv2 + (-GMem / Re) = -GMem / (Re + h)
(1/2)v2 = GMe [ (1/Re) – 1 / (Re + h) ]
= GMe[ (Re + hRe)  / Re(Re+ h) ]
(1/2)v2 = gReh / (Re + h)
Where g = GM / Re2 = 9.8 ms-2
v2 (Re + h) = 2gReh
v2Re = h(2gRev2)
h = Rev2 / (2gRe –  v2)
= 6.4 × 106 × (5 × 103)2 / [ 2 × 9.8 × 6.4 × 106 – (5 × 103)2
h = 1.6 × 106 m
Height achieved by the rocket with respect to the centre of the Earth = Re + h
= 6.4 × 106 + 1.6 × 106  =  8 × 106 m.